The purpose of this laboratory was to use two different techniques to attempt to identify the melting point and the mole ratio of hydrated water to anhydrous aluminum, potassium, and sulfate of AlKSO4. The hypotheses were: if the alum was put in a capillary tube the melting point of alum will be able to be determined; and the water of hydration in alum crystals will be possible to determine if the alum is heated with a Bunsen burner. Results: Every compound has its own unique sets of chemical properties. Alum crystals are of great purity and are easily prepared. Because of their purity, they are often used in dyeing cloth, where the alum acts as a source of Al+3 ions which are not contaminated. These properties can be determined experimentally and in this experiment as mentioned above, a few properties of alum were being determined. The first test was to identify the melting point of the alum and compare it to the published value that already exists. The melting point of a substance is a property that indicates at what temperature it goes through a state change of solid to liquid. In order to do this, the alum was placed in a water bath and heated. In the second part of the experiment, the alum was analyzed for water of hydration. When an ionic compound is prepared in aqueous solution and isolated by crystallization, water molecules are incorporated into the compound in fixed proportions. The amount of water incorporated is referred to as the water of hydration. This amount cannot be predicted, so it must be determined experimentally. In order to do this, the alum was heated until all the water was driven off. After the completion of the experiment, it was discovered that the results extracted were very close to the expected results. As seen in the data table, the literature melting point and the one obtained in the experiment were only a little more than .5 away from each other which means pretty accurate results were taken away from this experiment. In regards to the second part of the experiment, a way to see precision in the results would have been to do a second heating of the alum in the crucible. Time, however, did not allow for this so if the experiment was to be done again, better results may be obtained by another trial of that part. This experiment overall was a very good example of how certain properties of substances can only be obtained through experiment. It also showed new techniques of determining properties like melting point and water of hydration that could be used in future experiments.
Teaching The Confessions of St. Augustine ABSTRACT: Augustine's passionate and immensely personal account of his conversion has enthralled readers for centuries. Unfortunately, the passion and personal nature of the writing can stand as a barrier to comprehension, especially when the text is taught at the undergraduate level. Add to this the fact that the work has the character of one long and substained prayer to God, contains many passages that are tediously introspective, and refers to a time and place that are foreign to today's undergraduates, the task of helping students to understand and appreciate the work is daunting, to say the least. Augustine's very passionate and immensely personal account of his conversion has enthralled readers for centuries. Unfortunately, it is also the very passionate and personal nature of the writing that can stand as a barrier to comprehension, especially when the text is taught at the undergraduate level. Add to this the fact that the work has the character of one long, sustained prayer addressed to God, it contains many passages that are tediously introspective, it refers to a time and place that are foreign to today's undergraduates, and the task of helping students to understand and appreciate the work is, to say the least, daunting. But the Confessions, like all great literary masterpieces, is ultimately accessible, although special effort may have to be made to make it so for the student. One method of approaching the text that has been very helpful for my students has been to explore the text in terms of theme and pattern. It is this method about which I will speak in this paper. I shall speak first of theme, and return later to pattern. There is no doubt in Augustine's m... ...on, and the individuals who at every stage helped him to overcome those obstacles. I have further suggested that one theme that comes readily to the fore when the first eight books of the Confessions are analyzed in this way is Augustine's belief that God's work is accomplished in our lives through the agency of others. This approach is used with a primarily undergraduate audience in mind, thus many of Augustine's more subtle psychological and theological teachings from these books are not given emphasis. However, this approach does provide students with a way into the text that is intelligible and manageable. It can only be hoped that in subsequent readings, our students will be able to appreciate some of the other riches that await them therein. Bibliography Augustine. The Confessions of St. Augustine. Trans. John K. Ryan. Garden City: Image-Doubleday, 1960.
12/16/2019 0 Comments
Default Determination - Term Paper Example
This paper thus is going to handle and talk about the termination by default or default termination to every detail while analyzing everything that it entails, as well as the remedy of default termination in the context of federal procurement in reference to the nature of the course.
In termination for default, the government always wants to have the upper hand on the contract hence always trying to make sure that the contract is always to their advantage. So in that case, in order for the government to prevail in the defense of a termination by default, the government must establish that the termination of the contract by default prior to the contract completion date was effective, proper and correct. Since this default termination is such a drastic action, the federal procurement must show how its determination was well grounded and had no hidden motive or agenda, and is supported by solid evidence. Moreover, the agency must show/demonstrate through convincing evidence that there was no reasonable likelihood that the contractor could complete the work in time as agreed. The untimely performance of work which does not affect the critical path does not provide a basis for a default termination.
The above said, there are suggestions that it is improper for the government to terminate a contractor for his or her failure to make progress where the contactor had reason to be expected to complete the work to finish the job contracted fro in due time. In such cases the federal procurement must consider all available factors and reasons when they are determining whether to terminate a contractor using the default termination. Moreover, if the totality of the state of affairs shows or indicates the unsupported and arbitrary nature of the decision to terminate for default the law requires conversion of the action to termination for convenience.
There are laws put in reference to this type of termination
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